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but it usually implies that the water entry is low on the wheel.

Most water wheels in the United Kingdom and the United States are (or were) vertical wheels rotating about a horizontal axle, but in the Scottish highlands and parts of Southern Europe mills often had a horizontal wheel (with a vertical axle).

Breastshot and undershot wheels can be used on rivers or high volume flows with large reservoirs.

the horizontal wheel is a primitive and inefficient form of the modern turbine.

Some authors restrict the term to wheels where the water enters at about the 10 o’clock position, others 9 o’clock, and others for a range of heights.

Both kinetic (movement) and potential (height and weight) energy are utilised.

Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle, but can also be mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft, for example the tub or Norse.

Most of the energy gain is from the movement of the water and comparatively little from the head.

Undershot and stream wheel use large flows at little or no head.

There is often an associated millpond, a reservoir for storing water and hence energy until it is needed.

Larger heads store more potential energy for the same amount of water so the reservoirs for overshot and backshot wheels tend to be smaller than for breast shot wheels.

Overshot and pitchback water wheels are suitable where there is a small stream with a height difference of more than 2 meters, often in association with a small reservoir.

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